Construction Specifications

Modified from SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
05 January 2018
Copyright © 2018 SPARC
SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2

PDF Construction Specifications

MACRO Robot Construction Specifications v1.1 (9/27/2020)

  1. Overview and Purpose
    1.1. The SPARC Robot Construction Specifications was created to provide
    both builders and event organizers with an up to date and easy to
    implement ruleset.
    1.2. The SPARC Standard Ruleset will call out areas where the rules are
    often altered by the events and will provide the most frequently used
    options for easy adaptation.
    1.3. If you choose to utilize the SPARC Robot Construction Specifications
    and modify the rules to adapt to your event please note specific areas that
    differ from the standard SPARC rules in section 2.
  2. Deviations From Robot Construction Specifications
    2.1. This section is provided as a location to provide a brief outline of
    where the rules for a specific event differ from the SPARC Robot
    Construction Specifications.
    2.2. All changes from the baseline SPARC Robot Construction Specifications
    shall be clearly highlighted to allow easy identification of deviations from the
    original document. Use a strikethrough to mark off removed rules text
  3. General
    3.1. All participants build and operate robots at their own risk. Combat
    robotics is inherently dangerous. There is no amount of regulation that can
    encompass all the dangers involved. Please take care to not hurt yourself or
    others when building, testing and competing.
    3.2. If you have a robot or weapon design that does not fit within the
    categories set forth in these rules or is in some way ambiguous or
    borderline, please contact the event organizer. Safe innovation is always
    encouraged, but surprising the event staff with your brilliant exploitation of a
    loophole may cause your robot to be disqualified before it ever competes.
    3.3. Each event has safety inspections. It is at their sole discretion that
    your robot is allowed to compete. As a builder you are obligated to disclose
    all operating principles and potential dangers to the inspection staff.
    3.4. Cardinal Safety Rules: Failure to comply with any of the following rules
    could result in expulsion or worse, injury and death.
    3.4.1. Radios that do not operate using spread spectrum technology may not
    be turned on at or near events for any purpose without obtaining the
    appropriate frequency clip or explicit permission from the event.
    3.4.2. Proper activation and deactivation of robots is critical. Robots must
    only be activated in the arena, testing areas, or with expressed consent
    of the event and its safety officials.
    3.4.3. All robots must be able to be FULLY deactivated, which includes power
    to drive and weaponry, in under 60 seconds by a manual
    disconnect.
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    3.4.4. All robots not in an arena or official testing area must be raised or
    blocked up in a manner so that their wheels or legs cannot cause
    movement if the robot were turned on. Runaway bots are VERY
    dangerous.
    3.4.5. Locking devices: Moving weapons that can cause damage or
    injury must have a clearly visible locking device in place at all times
    when not in the arena. Locking devices must be painted in neon orange
    or another high-visibility color. Locking devices must be clearly capable
    to stopping, arresting or otherwise preventing harmful motion of the
    weapon.
    3.4.6. Weapon locking pins must be in place when weapon power is applied
    during a robot’s power-on procedure. This includes all powered
    weapons regardless of the power source or weight class.
    3.4.7. It is expected that all builders will follow basic safety practices during
    work on the robot at your pit station. Please be alert and aware of your
    pit neighbors and people passing by.
  4. Weight Classes.
    This event offers the listed weight classes in section 4.1. There is a 100% weight
    bonus for non-wheeled robots (There may be a 50% weight bonus for shufflers
    or other forms of locomotion which do not fall within the definition of nonwheeled robot – see 5.1.2 for a definition of a non-wheeled robot.)
    4.1.
    Rolling Shufflers Non-Wheeled
    0.33lb / 150g 225 g 300 g
    1lb / 454g 1.5 lb 2 lb
    2.2lb / 1kg 1.5 kg 2 kg
    3lb / 1.36kg 4.5 lb 6 lb
    6lb / 2.72kg 9 lb 12 lb
    12lb / 5.44kg 18 lb 24 lb
    12lb / 5.44kg Open Air 18 lb Open Air 24 lb Open Air
    15lb / 6.8kg 22.5 lb 30 lb
    30lb / 13.61kg 45 lb 60 lb
    30lb / 13.61kg
    Sportsman
    45 lb Sportsman 60 lb Sportsman
    30lb / 13.61kg Open
    Air
    45 lb Open Air 60 lb Open Air
    60lb / 27.22kg 90 lb 120 lb
    120lb / 54.43kg 180 lb 240 lb
    220lb / 99.79kg 330 lb 440 lb
    242.5lb / 110kg 363.75 lb 485 lb
    250lb / 113.4kg 375 lb 500 lb
    4.2. Sportsman Class. A robot may be entered in the “Sportsman” class
    if it complies with the additional rules in this section. Any robot may be
    entered in the “standard” class of the same weight.
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    4.2.1. Active Weapon Required. Your bot must include an active weapon
    or device. These include but are not limited to lifters, hammers, clamps,
    spinning weapons (within limitations, see below), etc. Weapons such as
    a fixed spike that require the movement of the bot to function do not
    qualify as active weapons. (within the limitations specified in 4.2.3)
    4.2.2. Limitations on Spinning Weapons. All devices rotating more than
    360 degrees are allowed to operate with a tip speed at or below 20ft/s.
    (Approximate tip speed = no load RPM * diameter in inches * 0.00436)
    Weapon rpm will be measured by tachometer prior to the start of the
    event. Specific weapons of sufficiently high mass or moment of inertia
    (MOI) may be limited to lower speeds or disallowed by officials if they
    deem the weapon to be too destructive. Officials may require submission
    of specifications including motor, voltage, gearing ratio, weapon weight
    and dimensions prior to the event.
    4.2.2.1. Sawing and drilling weapons will be allowed to exceed the
    20ft/s limit so long as they meet the following requirements:
    4.2.2.1.1. The effective tooth pitch for the saw or saw
    like weapon is ≥5. (Effective pitch = tooth count /
    diameter) For example, a 10” saw blade with 60 teeth
    would meet this requirement. A 10” saw blade with 40
    teeth would not. For abrasives the grit size will be used to
    determine if the requirements are met. (Tooth count =
    grit * circumference )
    4.2.2.1.2. Saws and saw like weapons are limited to
    the manufacturer’s rated RPM. If you are using a custom
    blade it will be limited to the rated rpm of an equivalent
    commercial blade. (± 5% on tooth count, diameter,
    thickness)
    4.2.2.1.3. All weapons operating above the 20ft/s limit
    must be submitted to the event organizer for approval
    during the registration period.
    4.2.3. Wedge Limitations. Active wedges are allowed with no restrictions.
    A robot may only have a single passive wedge.
    4.2.3.1. An active wedge is defined as a wedge that articulated and
    actuated independently of the drive system.
    4.2.3.2. A passive wedge is any wedge or wedge like object (forks,
    series of small, hinged, independent wedges along the same
    face of the robot) that does not meet the requirements for
    classification as an active wedge.
    4.2.3.3. At the event organizers discretion any weapons being
    primarily used as a passive wedge may be required to
    undergo modifications to reduce or remove this potential
    prior to continuing in a tournament should this use result in
    the robot being in violation of the restriction on the number
    of passive wedges permitted.
    4.2.4. Excessively Destructive Weapons. Weapons deemed too
    destructive by virtue of their mass, MOI or other characteristics may be
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    further limited or disallowed at the discretion of the event. Please
    contact the event organizer concerning your design to avoid problems.
    4.2.5. Standard SPARC Rules Apply. Unless otherwise stated, all other
    standard SPARC rules will apply. This includes walkers and their weight
    bonuses. However, a walker that uses the weight bonus for a spinning
    (or other) weapon that is too destructive will be disqualified.
    4.3. Open Air Combat Classes. For events where some or all classes
    compete in an open air environment the following restrictions apply.
    4.3.1. Slow spinners are allowed with an absolute maximum tip speed of 20
    feet per second and may spin in any direction. The tip speed in feet per
    second is calculated by this formula: Tip Speed = RPM x Diameter x
    .00436.
    4.3.2. Additionally, any weapon systems that may be capable of tearing off
    pieces of the opponent (flippers, axes, etc.) must be cleared with the
    event organizer prior to competing.
    4.4. Plastic Class – Under Development. Western Allied Robotics is in
    the process of developing rules for a Plastic Class. As this class is currently
    under development the rules are in flux. To view the current Plastic Class
    rules go to: http://www.westernalliedrobotics.com/index.php/therules/special-plastic-class-rules
    4.4.1. ABS, ASA, PET, PETG, PLA, PLA+, TPU and TPE are the only
    materials that can be used for the chassis and weapons. No other types of plastics
    or materials allowed (ie. metal, carbon fiber, UHMW, etc.)
    4.4.2. Motors, electronics, axles, fasteners and adhesives can be any
    material, but cannot be used in such a way to enhance the structural integrity,
    armor the robot, or enhance any weapon. Metal axles must not extend past the
    wheel hub, if the axle will be exposed to direct attack.
    4.4.3. Not all weight classes will run a separate plastic class. The event
    organizer will specify if there will be a separate plastic class and if so for which
    weight class(es), ie “1lb plastic class”
    Robot may be disqualified at the Event Organizer’s discretion if it is deemed to violate
    the spirit of the class. Contact the event organizer ahead of time if you are not sure your
    robot meets the above definition.
  5. Mobility
    5.1. All robots must have easily visible and controlled mobility in order
    to compete. Methods of mobility include but are not limited to:
    5.1.1. Rolling (wheels, tracks or the whole robot)
    5.1.2. Non-wheeled: non-wheeled robots have no rolling elements in contact
    with the floor and no continuous rolling or cam operated motion in
    contact with the floor, either directly or via a linkage. Motion is
    “continuous” if continuous operation of the drive motor(s) produces
    continuous motion of the robot. Linear-actuated legs and novel nonwheeled drive systems may qualify for this bonus. If you are intending
    to enter a non-wheeled robot in any event contact the event as soon as
    possible to determine what if any weight bonus you will qualify for.
    5.1.3. Shuffling (rotational cam operated legs)
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    5.1.4. Ground effect air cushions (hovercrafts)
    5.1.5. Jumping and hopping may be allowed at some events, contact the
    event organizer if you’re intending on using this as a method of
    locomotion.
    5.1.6. Flying (airfoil using, helium balloons, ornithopters, etc.) may be
    allowed at some events, contact the event organizer if you’re intending on
    using this as a method of locomotion.
  6. Robot control requirements:
    6.1. Tele-operated robots must be radio controlled, or use an approved
    custom system as described in 6.4.3. Radio controlled robots must use
    approved ground frequencies, typically 27/49/50/53/75/900/2400 for the
    United States.
    6.2. Tethered control is typically not allowed.
    6.3. Pre 1991 non-narrow band radio systems are not allowed.
    6.4. Radio system restrictions for this event with corresponding weight and
    or weapon restrictions:
    6.4.1. Radio systems that stop all motion in the robot (drive and weapons),
    when the transmitter loses power or signal, are required for all robots
    with active weapons or any robot over 12lbs. This may be inherent in
    the robots electrical system or be part of programmed fail-safes in the
    radio. Robots 1 lb and less typically will be required to have drive failsafes.
    6.4.2. All robot radio systems must have a way to change frequencies or
    coded channels to prevent radio conflicts. Having at least two
    frequencies or coded channels available is required. Lack of extra
    frequencies may result in a forfeit. Digital spread-spectrum radios that
    use frequency hopping or automatic channel selection qualify under this
    rule.
    6.4.3. If you are using a home built control system, or a control system not
    covered here, you must first clear it with the event you plan to attend.
    6.4.4. Toy radio systems are sometimes allowed at events for robots up to 12
    lbs with no active weapons.
    6.4.5. RC systems on the AM band are sometimes allowed at events for
    robots up to 12 lbs with no active weapons.
    6.4.6. All robots that are either: a.) 30 lbs or above or b.) 12 lbs or above
    with an active weapon MUST use a radio systems on the FM band with
    PCM, IPD coding, a digitally coded 900 MHz or 2.4GHz system (for
    example IFI, Spektrum, etc), or an approved custom control system.
    6.5. This event does not require a separate power switch for the radio, but
    it is encouraged.
    6.6. Most events do not provide reserved frequencies/channels for testing
    and safety.
  7. Autonomous/Semi-Autonomous Robots: Any robot that moves, seeks a target,
    or activates weapons without human control is considered autonomous. If your
    robot is autonomous you are required to contact this event before registration.
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    7.1. Autonomous robots must have a clearly visible light for each
    autonomous subsystem that indicates whether or not it is in autonomous
    mode, e.g. if your robot has two autonomous weapons it should have two
    “autonomous mode” lights (this is separate from any power or radio
    indicator lights used).
    7.2. Robots in the 12 pound or under classes are exempt from the
    remaining rules below, but safe operation, arming, and disarming must be
    demonstrated in safety inspections.
    7.3. The autonomous functionality of a robot must have the capability of
    being remotely armed and disarmed. (This does not include internal sensors,
    drive gyros, or closed loop motor controls.)
    7.3.1. While disarmed, all autonomous functions must be disabled.
    7.3.2. When activated the robot must have no autonomous functions
    enabled, and all autonomous functions must failsafe to off if there is loss
    of power or radio signal.
    7.3.3. In case of damage to components that remotely disarm the robot, the
    robots autonomous functions are required to automatically disarm
    within one minute of the match length time after being armed.
  8. Batteries and Power
    8.1. The only permitted batteries are ones that cannot spill or spray any of
    their contents when damaged or inverted. This means that standard
    automotive and motorcycle wet cell batteries are prohibited. Examples of
    batteries that are permitted: gel cells, Hawkers, NiCads, NiMh, dry cells,
    AGM, LIon, LiFe, LiPoly, etc. If your design uses a new type of battery, or
    one you are not sure about please contact the event you’re planning to
    attend.
    8.2. All onboard voltages above 48 Volts require prior approval from this
    event. (It is understood that a charged battery’s initial voltage state is above
    their nominal rated value)
    8.3. All electrical power to weapons and drive systems (systems that could
    cause potential human bodily injury) must have a manual disconnect that
    can be activated within 15 seconds without endangering the person turning
    it off. (E.g. No body parts in the way of weapons or pinch points.) Shut
    down must include a manually operated mechanical method of
    disconnecting the main battery power, such as a switch (Hella, Whyachi,
    etc) or removable link. Relays may be used to control power, but there must
    also be a mechanical disconnect. Please note that complete shut down time
    is specified in section 3.4.3.
    8.4. All efforts must be made to protect battery terminals from a direct
    short and causing a battery fire.
    8.5. If your robot uses a grounded chassis you must have a switch capable
    of disconnecting this ground. ICE robots are exempt from this rule, if there
    is no practical way to isolate their grounding components. You must contact
    this event for this exception.
    8.6. All Robots must have a light easily visible from the outside of the robot
    that shows its main power is activated.
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  9. Pneumatics
    9.1. Pneumatic systems on board the robot must only employ nonflammable, nonreactive gases (CO2, Nitrogen and air are most common). It
    is not permissible to use fiber wound pressure vessels with liquefied gasses
    like CO2 due to extreme temperature cycling.
    9.2. You must have a safe and secure method of refilling your pneumatic
    system.
    9.2.1. SPARC recommends the use of standard paintball fill fittings available
    at many retail outlets and online. For specs see Part#12MPS from
    Foster, http://www.couplers.com.
    9.3. Exemptions
    9.3.1. Robots 12 lbs and under and systems with gas storage of 2 fl oz or
    less are exempt from the remaining rules in this section provided that
    the maximum actuation pressure is 250 PSI or less and all
    components are used within the specifications provided by the
    manufacturer or supplier. If the specifications aren’t available or
    reliable, then it will be up to the EO to decide if the component is being
    used in a sufficiently safe manner.
    9.3.2. Pneumatic systems with pressures below 100 PSI, small volumes (12-
    16g CO2 cartridges), single firing applications, or pneumatics used for
    internal actuation (as opposed to external weaponry) may also be
    exempted from the remaining pneumatic rules. You are required to
    contact this event if you would like an exception.
    9.4. All pneumatic components on board a robot must be securely
    mounted. Particular attention must be made to pressure vessel mounting
    and armor to ensure that if ruptured it will not escape the robot. (The terms
    ‘pressure vessel, bottle, and source tank’ are used interchangeably)
    9.5. All pneumatic components within the robot must be rated or certified
    for AT LEAST the maximum pressure in that part of the system. You may be
    required to show rating or certification documentation on ANY component in
    your system.
    9.6. All pressure vessels must be rated for at least 120% of the pressure
    they are used at and have a current hydro test date. (This is to give them a
    margin of safety if damaged during a fight.) If large actuators, lines, or
    other components are used at pressures above 250psi these will also need
    to be over-rated and are to be pre-approved for this event.
    9.7. All primary pressure vessels must have an over pressure device
    (burst/rupture disk or over pressure ‘pop off’) set to no more than 130% of
    that pressure vessels rating. (Most commercially available bottles come with
    the correct burst assemblies, use of these is encouraged)
    9.8. If regulators or compressors are used anywhere in the pneumatic
    system there must be an (additional) over pressure device downstream of
    the regulator or compressor set for no more than 130% of the lowest rated
    component in that part of the pneumatic system.
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    9.9. All pneumatic systems must have a manual main shut off valve to
    isolate the rest of the system from the source tank. This valve must be
    easily accessed for robot de-activation and refilling.
    9.10. All pneumatic systems must have a manual bleed valve downstream of
    the main shut off valve to depressurize the system. This bleed valve must be
    easily accessed for deactivation. This valve must be left OPEN whenever the
    robot is not in the arena to ensure the system cannot operate accidentally.
    9.10.1. It is required to be able to easily bleed all pressure in the robot
    before exiting the arena. (You may be required to bleed the entire
    system if it is believed that you have any damaged components.)
    9.11. All regulated pneumatic systems must have an appropriate gauge
    scaled for maximum resolution of the pressure on the low-pressure side of
    the system. HPA (air, nitrogen, or inert gas) systems must have gauges on
    both the high AND low-pressure sides of regulators. A gauge or other clear
    visual indication that the system is charged is strongly recommended for all
    pneumatic systems. Whether specifically required or not.
    9.12. If back check valves are used anywhere in the system you must
    ensure that any part of the system they isolate can be bled and has an over
    pressure device.
    9.13. Any pneumatic system that does not use a regulator, or employs
    heaters or pressure boosters, or pressures above 2500psi must be prequalified by the event you’re planning to attend.
  10. Hydraulics
    10.1. Robots in the 12 lb class or lighter are exempt from the remaining
    rules in this section, but good engineering and best practices must be used
    in all hydraulic systems. However the pressure for 12 pound or less
    robots is limited to 250psi and there must be an easy way to
    determine this pressure. Contact the event with any questions.
    10.2. All hydraulic components onboard a robot must be securely mounted.
    Particular attention must be made to pump and accumulator mounting and
    armor to ensure that if ruptured direct fluid streams will not escape the
    robot.
    10.3. All hydraulic components within the robot must be rated or certified for
    AT LEAST the maximum pressure in that part of the system. You may be
    required to show rating or certification documentation on ANY component in
    your system.
    10.4. Any accumulators or large reservoir must be rated for at least 120% of
    the pressure they are used at. (This is to give them a margin of safety if
    damaged during a fight)
    10.5. All hydraulic systems must have an over pressure by pass device set
    to no more than 130% of the lowest component rating. It must be rated to
    bypass the full volume of the hydraulic pump.
    10.6. All hydraulic systems must have a(n) accessible manual bypass
    valve(s) to easily render the system harmless.
    10.7. All hydraulic systems must have appropriate gauges scaled for
    maximum resolution of the pressures in that part of the system.
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    10.8. All hydraulic systems must use non-flammable, non-corrosive fluid and
    must be designed not to leak when inverted.
    10.9. Any hydraulic system using pressure boosters, or pressures above
    5000psi (without accumulator) or pressures above 2000psi (with
    accumulator) must be pre-qualified by the event.
    10.10. Please note that some simple low pressure and volume hydraulic
    systems, like simple braking, may not need to adhere to all the rules above.
    You are required to contact the event if you would like an exception.
  11. Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) and liquid fuels are typically not allowed,
    however some events/venues do allow them.
    11.1. Fuel and Fuel Lines
    11.1.1. All commercially available grades of automobile or RC hobby
    fuel are allowed. Alcohol, Nitro-methane, jet fuel and other specialty
    grades of fuel require prior approval.
    11.1.2. Fuel lines and tanks must be made of high quality materials and
    all ends must be clamped securely.
    11.1.3. All fuel tanks and lines must be well protected and armored
    from all sides including moving parts and heat sources inside the robot.
    11.2. Fuel tank volume, on any robot, shall not be greater than the amount
    required to operate the engine for more than 1 minute longer than the
    match time at combat power plus a reasonable pre-match warm-up period.
    Total fuel volume, including fuel for both ICE and flame weapons (if allowed)
    may not exceed 20 oz unless prior approval is granted from this event.
    11.3. The output of any engines connected to weapons or drive systems
    must be coupled through a clutch which will decouple the motor when it is at
    idle. (This does not include motors used for generators and hydraulic
    pumps.)
    11.4. Any engine connected to a weapon must be capable of being started
    while the weapon locking pin is in place (see 3.4.6).
    11.5. All engines must turn off or return to idle at loss of radio signal and
    turn off at loss of radio receiver power.
    11.6. All engines must have a method of remotely shutting off.
    11.7. Any robot with liquid fuel and oil must be designed not to leak when
    inverted. (Minor oil leakage may be tolerated, however if it affects the other
    robot or becomes a large cleanup issue you may be called and the leaking
    robot will forfeit.)
    11.8. Use of engines other than standard piston engines (i.e. turbines etc.)
    require prior approval for any event.
  12. Rotational weapons or full body spinning robots are allowed at most events,
    however:
    12.1. Spinning weapons that can contact the outer arena walls during
    normal operation must be pre-approved by the event. (Contact with an inner
    arena curb, or containment wall is allowed and does not require prior
    permission.)
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    12.2. Spinning weapons must come to a full stop within 60 seconds of the
    power being removed using a self-contained braking system.
  13. Springs and flywheels
    13.1. Springs used in robots in the 12 lb class or smaller and those loaded
    simply by the weight of the robot (e.g. suspension systems) are exempt
    from the rules in this section. However safe operation and good engineering
    are always required.
    13.2. Any large springs used for drive or weapon power must have a way of
    loading and actuating the spring remotely under the robot’s power.
    13.2.1. Under no circumstances must a large spring be loaded when the
    robot is out of the arena or testing area.
    13.2.2. Small springs like those used within switches or other small
    internal operations are exempt from this rule.
    13.3. Any flywheel or similar kinetic energy storing device must not be
    spinning or storing energy in any way unless inside the arena or testing
    area.
    13.3.1. There must be a way of generating and dissipating the energy
    from the device remotely under the robot’s power.
    13.4. All springs, flywheels, and similar kinetic energy storing devices must
    fail to a safe position on loss of radio contact or power.
  14. Forbidden Weapons and Materials. The following weapons and materials are
    absolutely forbidden from use:
    14.1. Weapons designed to cause invisible damage to the other robot. This
    includes but is not limited to:
    14.1.1. Electrical weapons
    14.1.2. RF jamming equipment, etc.
    14.1.3. RF noise generated by an IC engine. (Please use shielding
    around sparking components)
    14.1.4. EMF fields from permanent or electro-magnets that affect
    another robot’s electronics.
    14.1.5. Entangling Weapons or defenses: these are weapons or
    defenses that can reasonably be expected to stop drive train and/or
    weapon motion by being wrapped around rotating parts. This includes
    nets, tapes, strings, and other entangling materials or devices.
    14.1.6. Weapons or defenses that that can reasonably be expected to
    stop combat completely of both (or more) robots.
    14.2. Weapons that require significant cleanup, or in some way damages the
    arena to require repair for further matches. This includes but is not limited
    to:
    14.2.1. Liquid weapons. Additionally a bot may not have liquid that can
    spill out when the robot is superficially damaged.
    14.2.2. Foams and liquefied gasses
    14.2.3. Powders, sand, ball bearings and other dry chaff weapons
    14.3. Un-tethered Projectiles (see tethered projectile description in Special
    Weapons section 15.1)
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    14.4. Heat and fire are forbidden as weapons. This includes, but is not
    limited to the following:
    14.4.1. Heat or fire weapons not specifically allowed in the Special
    Weapons section (15.2)
    14.4.2. Flammable liquids or gases
    14.4.3. Explosives or flammable solids such as:
    14.4.3.1. DOT Class C Devices
    14.4.3.2. Gunpowder / Cartridge Primers
    14.4.3.3. Military Explosives, etc.
    14.5. Light and smoke based weapons that impair the viewing of robots by
    an Entrant, Judge, Official or Viewer. (You are allowed to physically engulf
    your opponent with your robot however.) This includes, but is not limited to
    the following:
    14.5.1. Smoke weapons not specifically allowed in the Special Weapons
    section (15.3)
    14.5.2. Lights such as external lasers above ‘class I’ and bright strobe
    lights which may blind the opponent.
    14.6. Hazardous or dangerous materials are forbidden from use anywhere
    on a robot where they may contact humans, or by way of the robot being
    damaged (within reason) contact humans. Contact the event you plan to
    attend if you have a question.
  15. Special weapon descriptions allowed at this event:
    15.1. Tethered Projectiles are not allowed at this event.
    15.1.1. If allowed tethered projectiles must have a tether or restraining
    device that stops the projectile and is no longer than 8 feet.
    15.2. Heat and Fire are not allowed at this event. The subsequent rules
    in this section apply when heat and fire are allowed. Flame weapon rules
    are subject to change to comply with local fire regulations and fire officials.
    15.2.1. Fuel must exit the robot and be ignited as a gas. It cannot leave
    the robot in a liquid or gelled form or use oxidizers.
    15.2.2. Fuel types allowed are propane and butane, the maximum
    quantity allowed is 4 fl oz in robots up to 30 lbs, 8 fl oz for robots 60 lbs
    and above.
    15.2.3. The fuel tank must be as far from the outer armor of the robot
    as practicable and be protected from heat sources within the robot.
    15.2.4. The ignition system must have a remotely operated shut-off
    that allows the operator to disable it using the radio control system.
    15.3. Smoke Effects are not allowed at this event.
    15.3.1. Small smoke effects may be used, please contact the event if
    you plan on using it.