Construction Specifications

SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
05 January 2018
Copyright © 2018 SPARC
SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
MACRO Robot Construction Specifications v1.0

  1. Overview and Purpose
    1.1. The SPARC Robot Construction Specifications was created to provide both builders
    and event organizers with an up to date and easy to implement ruleset.
    1.2. The SPARC Standard Ruleset will call out areas where the rules are often altered by
    the events and will provide the most frequently used options for easy adaptation.
    1.3. If you choose to utilize the SPARC Robot Construction Specifications and modify the
    rules to adapt to your event please note specific areas that differ from the standard
    SPARC rules in section 2.
  2. Deviations From Robot Construction Specifications
    2.1. This section is provided as a location to provide a brief outline of where the rules for
    a specific event differ from the SPARC Robot Construction Specifications.
    2.2.All changes from the baseline SPARC Robot Construction Specifications shall be
    clearly highlighted to allow easy identification of deviations from the original
    document. Use a strikethrough to mark off removed rules text
  3. General
    3.1.All participants build and operate robots at their own risk. Combat robotics is
    inherently dangerous. There is no amount of regulation that can encompass all the
    dangers involved. Please take care to not hurt yourself or others when building,
    testing and competing.
    3.2. If you have a robot or weapon design that does not fit within the categories set
    forth in these rules or is in some way ambiguous or borderline, please contact the
    event organizer. Safe innovation is always encouraged, but surprising the event
    staff with your brilliant exploitation of a loophole may cause your robot to be
    disqualified before it ever competes.
    3.3. Each event has safety inspections. It is at their sole discretion that your robot is
    allowed to compete. As a builder you are obligated to disclose all operating
    principles and potential dangers to the inspection staff.
    3.4.Cardinal Safety Rules: Failure to comply with any of the following rules could result
    in expulsion or worse, injury and death.
    3.4.1. Radios that do not operate using spread spectrum technology may not be
    turned on at or near events for any purpose without obtaining the appropriate
    frequency clip or explicit permission from the event.
    3.4.2. Proper activation and deactivation of robots is critical. Robots must only be
    activated in the arena, testing areas, or with expressed consent of the event
    and its safety officials.
    3.4.3. All robots must be able to be FULLY deactivated, which includes power to
    drive and weaponry, in under 60 seconds by a manual disconnect.
    3.4.4. All robots not in an arena or official testing area must be raised or blocked up
    in a manner so that their wheels or legs cannot cause movement if the robot
    were turned on. Runaway bots are VERY dangerous.
    3.4.5. Locking devices: Moving weapons that can cause damage or injury must
    have a clearly visible locking device in place at all times when not in the
    arena. Locking devices must be painted in neon orange or another highvisibility color. Locking devices must be clearly capable to stopping, arresting
    or otherwise preventing harmful motion of the weapon.
    SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
    05 January 2018
    Copyright © 2018 SPARC
    SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
    3.4.6. Weapon locking pins must be in place when weapon power is applied during
    a robot’s power-on procedure. This includes all powered weapons regardless of
    the power source or weight class.
    3.4.7. It is expected that all builders will follow basic safety practices during work on
    the robot at your pit station. Please be alert and aware of your pit neighbors
    and people passing by.
  4. Weight Classes.
    This event offers the listed weight classes in section 4.1. There is a 100% weight bonus
    for non-wheeled robots (There may be a 50% weight bonus for shufflers or other forms
    of locomotion which do not fall within the definition of non-wheeled robot – see 5.1.2 for
    a definition of a non-wheeled robot.)
    4.1.
    Rolling Shufflers Non-Wheeled
    0.33lb / 150g 225 g 300 g
    1lb / 454g 1.5 lb 2 lb
    2.2lb / 1kg 1.5 kg 2 kg
    3lb / 1.36kg 4.5 lb 6 lb
    6lb / 2.72kg 9 lb 12 lb
    12lb / 5.44kg 18 lb 24 lb
    12lb / 5.44kg Open Air 18 lb Open Air 24 lb Open Air
    15lb / 6.8kg 22.5 lb 30 lb
    30lb / 13.61kg 45 lb 60 lb
    30lb / 13.61kg Sportsman 45 lb Sportsman 60 lb Sportsman
    30lb / 13.61kg Open Air 45 lb Open Air 60 lb Open Air
    60lb / 27.22kg 90 lb 120 lb
    120lb / 54.43kg 180 lb 240 lb
    220lb / 99.79kg 330 lb 440 lb
    242.5lb / 110kg1 363.75 lb 485 lb
    250lb / 113.4kg2 375 lb 500 lb
    4.2. Sportsman Class3
    . A robot may be entered in the “Sportsman” class if it complies
    with the additional rules in this section. Any robot may be entered in the “standard”
    class of the same weight.
    4.2.1. Active Weapon Required. Your bot must include an active weapon or
    device. These include but are not limited to lifters, hammers, clamps, spinning
    weapons (within limitations, see below), etc. Weapons such as a fixed spike that
    require the movement of the bot to function do not qualify as active weapons.
    (within the limitations specified in 4.2.3)
    4.2.2. Limitations on Spinning Weapons. All devices rotating more than 360
    degrees are allowed to operate with a tip speed at or below 20ft/s.
    (Approximate tip speed = no load RPM * diameter in inches * 0.00436) Weapon
    rpm will be measured by tachometer prior to the start of the event. Specific
    weapons of sufficiently high mass or moment of inertia (MOI) may be limited to
    lower speeds or disallowed by officials if they deem the weapon to be too
    destructive. Officials may require submission of specifications including motor,
    voltage, gearing ratio, weapon weight and dimensions prior to the event.

1 At the time of publication this weight class is being used exclusively for Robot Wars competitions
2 At the time of publication this weight class is being used exclusively for BattleBots competitions
3 The “Sportsman Class” was introduced by the Northeast Robot Club (NERC) in 2006. These guidelines are
modeled after the original NERC sportsman guidelines. (nerc.us)
SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
05 January 2018
Copyright © 2018 SPARC
SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
4.2.2.1. Sawing and drilling weapons will be allowed to exceed the 20ft/s
limit so long as they meet the following requirements:
4.2.2.1.1. The effective tooth pitch for the saw or saw like
weapon is ≥5. (Effective pitch = tooth count / diameter) For
example, a 10” saw blade with 60 teeth would meet this
requirement. A 10” saw blade with 40 teeth would not. For
abrasives the grit size will be used to determine if the
requirements are met. (Tooth count = grit * circumference )
4.2.2.1.2. Saws and saw like weapons are limited to the
manufacturer’s rated RPM. If you are using a custom blade it
will be limited to the rated rpm of an equivalent commercial
blade. (± 5% on tooth count, diameter, thickness)
4.2.2.1.3. All weapons operating above the 20ft/s limit
must be submitted to the event organizer for approval during
the registration period.
4.2.3. Wedge Limitations. Active wedges are allowed with no restrictions. A robot
may only have a single passive wedge.
4.2.3.1. An active wedge is defined as a wedge that articulated and
actuated independently of the drive system.
4.2.3.2. A passive wedge is any wedge or wedge like object (forks, series of
small, hinged, independent wedges along the same face of the
robot) that does not meet the requirements for classification as an
active wedge.
4.2.3.3. At the event organizers discretion any weapons being primarily
used as a passive wedge may be required to undergo modifications
to reduce or remove this potential prior to continuing in a
tournament should this use result in the robot being in violation of
the restriction on the number of passive wedges permitted.
4.2.4. Excessively Destructive Weapons. Weapons deemed too destructive by
virtue of their mass, MOI or other characteristics may be further limited or
disallowed at the discretion of the event. Please contact the event organizer
concerning your design to avoid problems.
4.2.5. Standard SPARC Rules Apply. Unless otherwise stated, all other standard
SPARC rules will apply. This includes walkers and their weight bonuses.
However, a walker that uses the weight bonus for a spinning (or other) weapon
that is too destructive will be disqualified.
4.3. Open Air Combat Classes. For events where some or all classes compete in an
open air environment the following restrictions apply.
4.3.1. Slow spinners are allowed with an absolute maximum tip speed of 20 feet per
second and may spin in any direction. The tip speed in feet per second is
calculated by this formula: Tip Speed = RPM x Diameter x .00436.
4.3.2. Additionally, any weapon systems that may be capable of tearing off pieces of
the opponent (flippers, axes, etc.) must be cleared with the event organizer
prior to competing.
4.4. Plastic Class – Under Development. Western Allied Robotics is in the process of
developing rules for a Plastic Class. As this class is currently under development the
rules are in flux. To view the current Plastic Class rules go to:
http://www.westernalliedrobotics.com/index.php/the-rules/special-plastic-classrules
4.4.1. PET, PETG, ABS, PLA, PLA+, TPU and TPE are the only materials that
can be used for the chassis and weapons. No other types of plastics or materials allowed
(ie. metal, carbon fiber, UHMW, etc.)
SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
05 January 2018
Copyright © 2018 SPARC
SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
4.4.2. Motors, electronics, axles, fasteners and adhesives can be any material,
but cannot be used in such a way to enhance the structural integrity, armor the robot, or
enhance any weapon.
4.4.3. Not all weight classes will run a separate plastic class. The event
organizer will specify if there will be a separate plastic class and if so for which weight
class(es), ie “1lb plastic class”
Robot may be disqualified at the Event Organizer’s discretion if it is deemed to violate the spirit of
the class. Contact the event organizer ahead of time if you are not sure your robot meets the
above definition.

  1. Mobility
    5.1.All robots must have easily visible and controlled mobility in order to compete.
    Methods of mobility include but are not limited to:
    5.1.1. Rolling (wheels, tracks or the whole robot)
    5.1.2. Non-wheeled: non-wheeled robots have no rolling elements in contact with
    the floor and no continuous rolling or cam operated motion in contact with the
    floor, either directly or via a linkage. Motion is “continuous” if continuous
    operation of the drive motor(s) produces continuous motion of the robot.
    Linear-actuated legs and novel non-wheeled drive systems may qualify for this
    bonus. If you are intending to enter a non-wheeled robot in any event contact
    the event as soon as possible to determine what if any weight bonus you will
    qualify for.
    5.1.3. Shuffling (rotational cam operated legs)
    5.1.4. Ground effect air cushions (hovercrafts)
    5.1.5. Jumping and hopping may be allowed at some events, contact the event
    organizer if you’re intending on using this as a method of locomotion.
    5.1.6. Flying (airfoil using, helium balloons, ornithopters, etc.) may be allowed at
    some events, contact the event organizer if you’re intending on using this as a
    method of locomotion.
  2. Robot control requirements:
    6.1. Tele-operated robots must be radio controlled, or use an approved custom system
    as described in 6.4.3. Radio controlled robots must use approved ground
    frequencies, typically 27/49/50/53/75/900/2400 for the United States.
    6.2. Tethered control is typically not allowed.
    6.3. Pre 1991 non-narrow band radio systems are not allowed.
    6.4.Radio system restrictions for this event with corresponding weight and or weapon
    restrictions:
    6.4.1. Radio systems that stop all motion in the robot (drive and weapons), when
    the transmitter loses power or signal, are required for all robots with active
    weapons or any robot over 12lbs. This may be inherent in the robots electrical
    system or be part of programmed fail-safes in the radio. Robots 1 lb and less
    typically will be required to have drive fail-safes.
    6.4.2. All robot radio systems must have a way to change frequencies or coded
    channels to prevent radio conflicts. Having at least two frequencies or coded
    channels available is required. Lack of extra frequencies may result in a forfeit.
    Digital spread-spectrum radios that use frequency hopping or automatic channel
    selection qualify under this rule.
    6.4.3. If you are using a home built control system, or a control system not covered
    here, you must first clear it with the event you plan to attend.
    6.4.4. Toy radio systems are sometimes allowed at events for robots up to 12 lbs
    with no active weapons.
    SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
    05 January 2018
    Copyright © 2018 SPARC
    SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
    6.4.5. RC systems on the AM band are sometimes allowed at events for robots up to
    12 lbs with no active weapons.
    6.4.6. All robots that are either: a.) 30 lbs or above or b.) 12 lbs or above with an
    active weapon MUST use a radio systems on the FM band with PCM, IPD coding,
    a digitally coded 900 MHz or 2.4GHz system (for example IFI, Spektrum, etc),
    or an approved custom control system.
    6.5. This event does not require a separate power switch for the radio, but it is
    encouraged.
    6.6. Most events do not provide reserved frequencies/channels for testing and safety.
  3. Autonomous/Semi-Autonomous Robots: Any robot that moves, seeks a target, or
    activates weapons without human control is considered autonomous. If your robot is
    autonomous you are required to contact this event before registration.
    7.1.Autonomous robots must have a clearly visible light for each autonomous subsystem
    that indicates whether or not it is in autonomous mode, e.g. if your robot has two
    autonomous weapons it should have two “autonomous mode” lights (this is separate
    from any power or radio indicator lights used).
    7.2.Robots in the 12 pound or under classes are exempt from the remaining rules
    below, but safe operation, arming, and disarming must be demonstrated in safety
    inspections.
    7.3. The autonomous functionality of a robot must have the capability of being remotely
    armed and disarmed. (This does not include internal sensors, drive gyros, or closed
    loop motor controls.)
    7.3.1. While disarmed, all autonomous functions must be disabled.
    7.3.2. When activated the robot must have no autonomous functions enabled, and
    all autonomous functions must failsafe to off if there is loss of power or radio
    signal.
    7.3.3. In case of damage to components that remotely disarm the robot, the robots
    autonomous functions are required to automatically disarm within one minute
    of the match length time after being armed.
  4. Batteries and Power
    8.1. The only permitted batteries are ones that cannot spill or spray any of their contents
    when damaged or inverted. This means that standard automotive and motorcycle
    wet cell batteries are prohibited. Examples of batteries that are permitted: gel cells,
    Hawkers, NiCads, NiMh, dry cells, AGM, LIon, LiFe, LiPoly, etc. If your design uses a
    new type of battery, or one you are not sure about please contact the event you’re
    planning to attend.
    8.2.All onboard voltages above 48 Volts require prior approval from this event. (It is
    understood that a charged battery’s initial voltage state is above their nominal rated
    value)
    8.3.All electrical power to weapons and drive systems (systems that could cause
    potential human bodily injury) must have a manual disconnect that can be activated
    within 15 seconds without endangering the person turning it off. (E.g. No body
    parts in the way of weapons or pinch points.) Shut down must include a manually
    operated mechanical method of disconnecting the main battery power, such as a
    switch (Hella, Whyachi, etc) or removable link. Relays may be used to control
    power, but there must also be a mechanical disconnect. Please note that complete
    shut down time is specified in section 3.4.3.
    8.4.All efforts must be made to protect battery terminals from a direct short and
    causing a battery fire.
    SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
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    SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
    8.5. If your robot uses a grounded chassis you must have a switch capable of
    disconnecting this ground. ICE robots are exempt from this rule, if there is no
    practical way to isolate their grounding components. You must contact this event for
    this exception.
    8.6.All Robots must have a light easily visible from the outside of the robot that shows
    its main power is activated.
  5. Pneumatics
    9.1. Pneumatic systems on board the robot must only employ non-flammable,
    nonreactive gases (CO2, Nitrogen and air are most common). It is not permissible
    to use fiber wound pressure vessels with liquefied gasses like CO2 due to extreme
    temperature cycling.
    9.2. You must have a safe and secure method of refilling your pneumatic system.
    9.2.1. SPARC recommends the use of standard paintball fill fittings available at
    many retail outlets and online. For specs see Part#12MPS from Foster,
    http://www.couplers.com.
    9.3.Exemptions
    9.3.1. Robots 12 lbs and under and systems with gas storage of 2 fl oz or less are
    exempt from the remaining rules in this section provided that the maximum
    actuation pressure is 250 PSI or less and all components are used within the
    specifications provided by the manufacturer or supplier. If the specifications
    aren’t available or reliable, then it will be up to the EO to decide if the
    component is being used in a sufficiently safe manner.
    9.3.2. Pneumatic systems with pressures below 100 PSI, small volumes (12-16g
    CO2 cartridges), single firing applications, or pneumatics used for internal
    actuation (as opposed to external weaponry) may also be exempted from the
    remaining pneumatic rules. You are required to contact this event if you would
    like an exception.
    9.4.All pneumatic components on board a robot must be securely mounted. Particular
    attention must be made to pressure vessel mounting and armor to ensure that if
    ruptured it will not escape the robot. (The terms ‘pressure vessel, bottle, and source
    tank’ are used interchangeably)
    9.5.All pneumatic components within the robot must be rated or certified for AT LEAST
    the maximum pressure in that part of the system. You may be required to show
    rating or certification documentation on ANY component in your system.
    9.6.All pressure vessels must be rated for at least 120% of the pressure they are used
    at and have a current hydro test date. (This is to give them a margin of safety if
    damaged during a fight.) If large actuators, lines, or other components are used at
    pressures above 250psi these will also need to be over-rated and are to be preapproved for this event.
    9.7.All primary pressure vessels must have an over pressure device (burst/rupture disk
    or over pressure ‘pop off’) set to no more than 130% of that pressure vessels
    rating. (Most commercially available bottles come with the correct burst assemblies,
    use of these is encouraged)
    9.8. If regulators or compressors are used anywhere in the pneumatic system there
    must be an (additional) over pressure device downstream of the regulator or
    compressor set for no more than 130% of the lowest rated component in that part
    of the pneumatic system.
    9.9.All pneumatic systems must have a manual main shut off valve to isolate the rest of
    the system from the source tank. This valve must be easily accessed for robot deactivation and refilling.
    SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
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    Copyright © 2018 SPARC
    SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
    9.10. All pneumatic systems must have a manual bleed valve downstream of the
    main shut off valve to depressurize the system. This bleed valve must be easily
    accessed for deactivation. This valve must be left OPEN whenever the robot is not in
    the arena to ensure the system cannot operate accidentally.
    9.10.1. It is required to be able to easily bleed all pressure in the robot
    before exiting the arena. (You may be required to bleed the entire system if it
    is believed that you have any damaged components.)
    9.11. All regulated pneumatic systems must have an appropriate gauge scaled for
    maximum resolution of the pressure on the low-pressure side of the system. HPA
    (air, nitrogen, or inert gas) systems must have gauges on both the high AND lowpressure sides of regulators. A gauge or other clear visual indication that the system
    is charged is strongly recommended for all pneumatic systems. Whether specifically
    required or not.
    9.12. If back check valves are used anywhere in the system you must ensure that
    any part of the system they isolate can be bled and has an over pressure device.
    9.13. Any pneumatic system that does not use a regulator, or employs heaters or
    pressure boosters, or pressures above 2500psi must be pre-qualified by the event
    you’re planning to attend.
  6. Hydraulics
    10.1. Robots in the 12 lb class or lighter are exempt from the remaining rules in
    this section, but good engineering and best practices must be used in all hydraulic
    systems. However the pressure for 12 pound or less robots is limited to
    250psi and there must be an easy way to determine this pressure. Contact
    the event with any questions.
    10.2. All hydraulic components onboard a robot must be securely mounted.
    Particular attention must be made to pump and accumulator mounting and armor to
    ensure that if ruptured direct fluid streams will not escape the robot.
    10.3. All hydraulic components within the robot must be rated or certified for AT
    LEAST the maximum pressure in that part of the system. You may be required to
    show rating or certification documentation on ANY component in your system.
    10.4. Any accumulators or large reservoir must be rated for at least 120% of the
    pressure they are used at. (This is to give them a margin of safety if damaged
    during a fight)
    10.5. All hydraulic systems must have an over pressure by pass device set to no
    more than 130% of the lowest component rating. It must be rated to bypass the full
    volume of the hydraulic pump.
    10.6. All hydraulic systems must have a(n) accessible manual bypass valve(s) to
    easily render the system harmless.
    10.7. All hydraulic systems must have appropriate gauges scaled for maximum
    resolution of the pressures in that part of the system.
    10.8. All hydraulic systems must use non-flammable, non-corrosive fluid and must
    be designed not to leak when inverted.
    10.9. Any hydraulic system using pressure boosters, or pressures above 5000psi
    (without accumulator) or pressures above 2000psi (with accumulator) must be prequalified by the event.
    10.10. Please note that some simple low pressure and volume hydraulic systems,
    like simple braking, may not need to adhere to all the rules above. You are required
    to contact the event if you would like an exception.
  7. Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) and liquid fuels are typically not allowed, however
    some events/venues do allow them.
    SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
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    Copyright © 2018 SPARC
    SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
    11.1. Fuel and Fuel Lines
    11.1.1. All commercially available grades of automobile or RC hobby fuel are
    allowed. Alcohol, Nitro-methane, jet fuel and other specialty grades of fuel
    require prior approval.
    11.1.2. Fuel lines and tanks must be made of high quality materials and all
    ends must be clamped securely.
    11.1.3. All fuel tanks and lines must be well protected and armored from all
    sides including moving parts and heat sources inside the robot.
    11.2. Fuel tank volume, on any robot, shall not be greater than the amount
    required to operate the engine for more than 1 minute longer than the match
    time at combat power plus a reasonable pre-match warm-up period. Total fuel
    volume, including fuel for both ICE and flame weapons (if allowed) may not exceed
    20 oz unless prior approval is granted from this event.
    11.3. The output of any engines connected to weapons or drive systems must be
    coupled through a clutch which will decouple the motor when it is at idle. (This does
    not include motors used for generators and hydraulic pumps.)
    11.4. Any engine connected to a weapon must be capable of being started while
    the weapon locking pin is in place (see 3.4.6).
    11.5. All engines must turn off or return to idle at loss of radio signal and turn off
    at loss of radio receiver power.
    11.6. All engines must have a method of remotely shutting off.
    11.7. Any robot with liquid fuel and oil must be designed not to leak when inverted.
    (Minor oil leakage may be tolerated, however if it affects the other robot or becomes
    a large cleanup issue you may be called and the leaking robot will forfeit.)
    11.8. Use of engines other than standard piston engines (i.e. turbines etc.) require
    prior approval for any event.
    12.Rotational weapons or full body spinning robots are allowed at most events, however:
    12.1. Spinning weapons that can contact the outer arena walls during normal
    operation must be pre-approved by the event. (Contact with an inner arena curb, or
    containment wall is allowed and does not require prior permission.)
    12.2. Spinning weapons must come to a full stop within 60 seconds of the power
    being removed using a self-contained braking system.
    13.Springs and flywheels
    13.1. Springs used in robots in the 12 lb class or smaller and those loaded simply
    by the weight of the robot (e.g. suspension systems) are exempt from the rules in
    this section. However safe operation and good engineering are always required.
    13.2. Any large springs used for drive or weapon power must have a way of loading
    and actuating the spring remotely under the robot’s power.
    13.2.1. Under no circumstances must a large spring be loaded when the robot
    is out of the arena or testing area.
    13.2.2. Small springs like those used within switches or other small internal
    operations are exempt from this rule.
    13.3. Any flywheel or similar kinetic energy storing device must not be spinning or
    storing energy in any way unless inside the arena or testing area.
    13.3.1. There must be a way of generating and dissipating the energy from
    the device remotely under the robot’s power.
    13.4. All springs, flywheels, and similar kinetic energy storing devices must fail to a
    safe position on loss of radio contact or power.
    SPARC Robot Construction Specifications v1.2
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    SPARC Standard Ruleset v1.2
  8. Forbidden Weapons and Materials. The following weapons and materials are absolutely
    forbidden from use:
    14.1. Weapons designed to cause invisible damage to the other robot. This includes
    but is not limited to:
    14.1.1. Electrical weapons
    14.1.2. RF jamming equipment, etc.
    14.1.3. RF noise generated by an IC engine. (Please use shielding around
    sparking components)
    14.1.4. EMF fields from permanent or electro-magnets that affect another
    robot’s electronics.
    14.1.5. Entangling Weapons or defenses: these are weapons or defenses that
    can reasonably be expected to stop drive train and/or weapon motion by being
    wrapped around rotating parts. This includes nets, tapes, strings, and other
    entangling materials or devices.
    14.1.6. Weapons or defenses that that can reasonably be expected to stop
    combat completely of both (or more) robots.
    14.2. Weapons that require significant cleanup, or in some way damages the arena
    to require repair for further matches. This includes but is not limited to:
    14.2.1. Liquid weapons. Additionally a bot may not have liquid that can spill
    out when the robot is superficially damaged.
    14.2.2. Foams and liquefied gasses
    14.2.3. Powders, sand, ball bearings and other dry chaff weapons
    14.3. Un-tethered Projectiles (see tethered projectile description in Special
    Weapons section 15.1)
    14.4. Heat and fire are forbidden as weapons. This includes, but is not limited to
    the following:
    14.4.1. Heat or fire weapons not specifically allowed in the Special Weapons
    section (15.2)
    14.4.2. Flammable liquids or gases
    14.4.3. Explosives or flammable solids such as:
    14.4.3.1. DOT Class C Devices
    14.4.3.2. Gunpowder / Cartridge Primers
    14.4.3.3. Military Explosives, etc.
    14.5. Light and smoke based weapons that impair the viewing of robots by an
    Entrant, Judge, Official or Viewer. (You are allowed to physically engulf your
    opponent with your robot however.) This includes, but is not limited to the
    following:
    14.5.1. Smoke weapons not specifically allowed in the Special Weapons
    section (15.3)
    14.5.2. Lights such as external lasers above ‘class I’ and bright strobe lights
    which may blind the opponent.
    14.6. Hazardous or dangerous materials are forbidden from use anywhere on a
    robot where they may contact humans, or by way of the robot being damaged
    (within reason) contact humans. Contact the event you plan to attend if you have a
    question.
    15.Special weapon descriptions allowed at this event:
    15.1. Tethered Projectiles are not allowed at this event.
    15.1.1. If allowed tethered projectiles must have a tether or restraining device
    that stops the projectile and is no longer than 8 feet.
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    15.2. Heat and Fire are not allowed at this event. The subsequent rules in this
    section apply when heat and fire are allowed. Flame weapon rules are subject to
    change to comply with local fire regulations and fire officials.
    15.2.1. Fuel must exit the robot and be ignited as a gas. It cannot leave the
    robot in a liquid or gelled form or use oxidizers.
    15.2.2. Fuel types allowed are propane and butane, the maximum quantity
    allowed is 4 fl oz in robots up to 30 lbs, 8 fl oz for robots 60 lbs and above.
    15.2.3. The fuel tank must be as far from the outer armor of the robot as
    practicable and be protected from heat sources within the robot.
    15.2.4. The ignition system must have a remotely operated shut-off that
    allows the operator to disable it using the radio control system.
    15.3. Smoke Effects are not allowed at this event.
    15.3.1. Small smoke effects may be used, please contact the event if you plan
    on using it.